By : Busranto Latif Doa
If a language consist of oral language and written language, hence literature also consist of two shares that is oral art and art written. In Ternate, we seldom to meet the art written. This matter because of Ianguage of Ternate don’t have letter.
Literature in Ternate in fact there are since pre Islam era, with understanding that still not yet is a art written but which in form of oral literature. Oral art in Ternate is usually preserveed and isn’t it hereditaryly from generation to generation till in this time. In the growth of along with growth of Islam in this area, hence oral art of Ternate was later written by using Arab letter. Rhythm with growth of the language of Ternate and Malay become Lingua Franca in Moluccas North area, hence oral art of Ternate even also later become property of local society, so that it is not a wonder if this oral art also get influence of local languages and also Malay, Arab, Java, etc.
Pursuant to his type and form, oral art of Ternate compose of :
1. Theorem of Tifa (Dalil Tifa)
2. Theorem of Moro (Dalil Moro)
3. Dorobololo / Dola Bololo
4. Poetry (Pantun)
5. Rorasa (Bobaso Se Rasai)
6. Analogy (Tamsil)
7. Cum-Cum (Quiz)
8. Mantera (Supertitous Formula) , and
9. Jarita. (Folklore)
Pursuant to presentation (passing art voice and dance), hence oral art of Ternate compose of :
” Se Saluma Moro-Moro
” Anakona Sio Yaara
” Togal, and
” Lala / lalayon.
FORM AND TYPE.
As also to oral Iiterature of Indonesia which kinds of form, oral Iiterature of Ternate is also met by kinds of form and his type. When evaluated from aspect form and type and also bardic content, hence oral art of Ternate can be classified according to range of time, that is period before Islam and period after entering Islam.
In oral art of Ternate, there are also form poem, lyric prose, and laid open prose in a word and modestly. Form and oral art type of Ternate compose from :
1. Dalil Tifa. (Theorem of Tifa – Religion Valuable)
Theorem of Tifa in form of proverb is statement of public opinion (ancestor heritage) having the character of laid open advice and guide in the form of theorem. Content which consist in most have theorem breaths to having the character of religious (religion value). Intention of equalized like tifa in beated mosque at the time of selected to remind people to do sholat.
Theorem of Tifa very popular by old fellow clan to give advice to youngs of them always use Theorem of Tifa, to examplize event of occurence of human being, death of human being and life in the beyond nature. Submitted by old fellow to the rising generation when them are meeting. Theorem of Tifa also can be intoned by singer which have skilled sing.
2. Dalil Moro. (Theorem of Moro – Valuable of Advice Life in Earthly)
As Theorem of Tifa, Theorem of Moro is old art poem form which the was proverb of laying open imagery which in form of theorem for example to be imitated and this is ancestors advice was so that adhered by generation after them.
Content and understanding of Theorem idyl of Moro is concerning human life reality that every society individual have to earn to place ownself in society and also can create happy atmosphere of mankind humanity in relationship until into big clan, society, but don’t affect by situation.
Forwarding of Theorem of Moro usually with activity of conversation, especially old fellow circle, this matter now have seldom. In the form of hymn, a skilled singer warble. Time and place depend on poet of itself.
3. Dorobololo / Dola Bololo.
Dola Bololo or Dorobololo is expression rasher which consist of two couplet. Dorobololo is statement of feeling and opinion of someone in the form of analogy and insinuation. Someone submit opinion and feeling with proverb to friend or someone so that can comprehend intention and also do aggrieved with softness say insinuation Ianguage which we use.
Communicating to use proverb of Dorobololo will polite and softer. Dorobololo is teared insinuation and also is easy to comprehended by intention and opinion of someone. Dorobololo submitted with conversation between two people or more, in a moment according to time and place when meeting especially in giving advice.
4. Poetry. (Pantun)
As other area in Indonesia, poetry in oral art of Ternate even also have important place among society, also among adolescent clan. Because poetry very take a fancy by adolescent. Poetry very take a fancy by all generations. Usually poetry is also warbled by singer by using gambus (a kind of small ganun) that is as a means of attendant of song.
Poetry content give impression concerning interaction of adolescent clan, advice interaction of life, and also fomentation look for science. Forwarding of poetry depend on singer.
5. Rorasa. (Bobaso se Rasai).
Rorasa in form of oral function in life of society, bardic in form of statement of feeling, advice and also guide. Rorasa done by people of Ternate at selected ceremony, especially in custom ceremony. Rorasa is preface at custom ceremony. Rorasa have to be submitted by prominent religion or custom.
Rorasa conducted at event / ceremony like :
a. Appointment of Sultan / King of Ternate
b. Sidego / Sinonako (Introducting Queen of Ternate, New King, King consanquinity or prominent guest)
c. Acceptance of Prominent Guest / Joko Kaha
d. Ceremony Marriage
e. Repast Custom of Ternate
f. Bunal Ceremony Sultan / King of Ternate , and
g. Custom ceremony of Ternate other.
Text hereunder is a example form of Rorasa, that is Rorasa appointment of the King of Ternate which to 48th at 1986, (Sultan Haji Mudafar Sjah – II) :
“Sailillah Suba Jou Kolano Lamo-Lamo, Kahlifah magori-gori. Kanange ne toma hijrahtun Nabi ma pariama calamoi se ratu raha seromtoha maara Rabiul Akhir i fane nyagi moi se raha mawange Robo oras cako tofkange makutika Qamariah waktu dhuha, si mara Jou Allah Taala mahidayat sekodrati manyinga magaro si dete ngana toma darajatul aliyah manyeku-nyeku toma darajat Kolano.
No Khalifahtur rasyid no tobad dihir Rasul no gugu takbir perintah amar ma’ruf se nahi mungkari, wayah kumul a-dilina bainal Rijali wan nisaa’i, Sailillah Suba Jou Kolano no halifah magori-gori.
No tego toma singgahsana Kolano, ni jojoko no sijoko toma ti’nil Moloku, ni momina se ni gogise mangagu-ngagu intan se yakut ma lili parmata jamrut, mabubela ratna mutu manikam. Mafassyah isi woro toma alam daerah Moloku Kie Raha, Limau Duko se Gapi, Seki se Tuanane matubu, La idadi ka cahaya akal insan Kolano.
Sailillah Suba Jou Kolano Lamo-Lamo, no khalifah magori-gori. La ngofa ngare ngom bala se kusu se kano-kano, kie se gam mi masi tadu se Jou Kolano ni cahaya budiman malobi-lobi.
Sailillah Suba Jou Kolano Lamo-Lamo, no khalifah magori-gori. Kum-kum ua moju ni sosyusi ka ni Rasul Wajir ngofa ngare Abdul Hamid, Kimalaha Marsaoli to vis Jogugu to sitede ri suba paksaan mangale se to waje-waje, ni Moloku Kie Raha, Tarnate se Todore, Bacan se Jailolo, se ni mie gudu-gudu Sulu se Mindano, se ni mie lofo-lofo Morotai se Morotia se ni sara gudu-gudu Bima se Manggarai se ni sara lofo-lofo Sula se Taliabu.
Ni ronga se ni Bobato Dunia se Bobato Akhirat, Soa sio se Sangaji, Heku se Cim se ni bangsa berbangsa, se ni ngofa-ngofa kolano se ni ngofa ngare pihak berpihak.
Ma istiadat se ma kakasura ma Adat se ma Aturan, ma Galib se ma Likudi, ma Cara se ma Biasa, ma Cing se ma Cingari, ngofa ngare ngom mi moi-moi bala kusu se kano-kano, ronga se Bobato mi tede se mi saha mi si mulia se mi dodoman, daka toma zaman mutakaddimin Jou ni Guru se ni Haji se ngofa ngare ngom mia Baba se mia Ete si tudu kanange ne zaman mutakhirin, Jou se ngofa ngare ngom i tola ua moju toma si futu se wange i tudu hari kiyamat.
Sailillah Suba Jou Kolano Lamo-Lamo, no khalifah magori-gori. Kum-kum ua moju ni sosyusy ngofa ngare Kimalaha Marsaoli to vis Jogugu to tede ri suba paksaan”.
6. Tamsil. (Analogy)
As in Iiterature of Indonesia, analogy in oral art of Ternate is guide and advice concerning religious element, in commemoration for the follower of religion of islam to be really study theology of islam and practice during above the ground in the world.
Oral art of analogy in Ternate conducted by prominent religion at event mourn death han at home place mourn that done. Target of him so that hearer which attend in event mourn partook recalled that them even also will pass street as the death which have preceded them. That death come visiting someone without there is notification beforehand. Hence from that, whilst there is still opportunity (life), we need to trace and claim demand obliged by religion.
7. Cum-Cum. (Quiz)
Cum-Cum literally mean to guess to guess / conundrum. Cum-Cum is usually done in place ceremony mourn on death of someone. Perpetrator of young man and young woman, what compose in two group, each have member to five, ten people or more.
If one of the group fail because do not ready to guess riddle raised by group contest. Penalization for group which fail is execute something work for which required by place house execution of event mourn on death, like requirement of wood to fire for cooking, hence them (group which fail) searching and delivering the the wood to fire for cooking at home.
Words in Cum-Cum in form of idyl. Strarting game have to precede with word of opening tell rule which is proper to be adhered and executed by participant fail.
8. Supertitous Formula. (Mantera)
Supertitous formula as cultural complement and shares of area have important role and function of old world society dalarn. Can meet everywhere that supertitous formula in all Indonesia, even in all the world. Usage and target is same.
In society culture of Ternate away back, functioning supertitous formula for the: medication, impenetrability with a purpose to fight and self-defence and or war, loved by people, resorting to and occult soul, saying thanks at occult soul, or refuse disaster.
Equally, that supertitous formula as very functioning oral art in life of past society, while at rural society now, that supertitous formula still function medication.
9. Folklore. (Jarita)
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